Plasma/Mobile/Porting

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Revision as of 22:31, 2 January 2017 by Valoriez (Talk | contribs) (Neon/Ubuntu rootfs: typos)

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This guide is aimed to porting Plasma Mobile to ARM devices which requires Android binary blobs. This guide covers various parts,

  • Kernel, either provided by vendor or thirdparty with config options enabled to support LXC containers
  • AOSP/LineageOS base, built with core_tiny target, just base items
  • LXC container with Neon/Ubuntu rootfs containing KWin/Wayland and Plasma Mobile

Kernel

Kernel needs to support the various config options, you can use lxc-checkconfig script provided by lxc userspace tools to check if all required features are enabled, for example:

% CONFIG=arch/arm64/configs/bullhead_defconfig lxc-checkconfig
--- Namespaces ---
Namespaces: enabled
Utsname namespace: enabled
Ipc namespace: enabled
Pid namespace: enabled
User namespace: enabled
Network namespace: missing
Multiple /dev/pts instances: enabled

--- Control groups ---
Cgroup: enabled
Cgroup clone_children flag: enabled
Cgroup device: enabled
Cgroup sched: enabled
Cgroup cpu account: enabled
Cgroup memory controller: enabled
Cgroup cpuset: enabled

[..]

Below is the list of the config options,

CONFIG_CGROUP_DEVICE=y
CONFIG_CPUSETS=y
CONFIG_CGROUP_MEM_RES_CTLR=y
CONFIG_CGROUP_PERF=y
CONFIG_UTS_NS=y
CONFIG_IPC_NS=y
CONFIG_USER_NS=y
CONFIG_PID_NS=y
CONFIG_DEVPTS_MULTIPLE_INSTANCES=y

AOSP/LineageOS base

AOSP/LineageOS base should have all non-required things removed and some changes in base to accomodate needs of libhybris and container containing Linux system. Below is list of various changes,

Export PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH to point to lxc userspace tools

We use prebuilt lxc userspace tools from linux containers CI. Those are installed in /data partition which by default is not in the PATH android shell looks binaries into. Modify the system/core/rootdir/init.environ.rc file to include the path of LXC userspace tools in $PATH and export LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

project system/core/
diff --git a/rootdir/init.environ.rc.in b/rootdir/init.environ.rc.in
index c32337a..9d91d60 100644
--- a/rootdir/init.environ.rc.in
+++ b/rootdir/init.environ.rc.in
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
 # set up the global environment
 on init
-    export PATH /sbin:/vendor/bin:/system/sbin:/system/bin:/system/xbin
+    export PATH /data/lxc/lxc/bin:/sbin:/vendor/bin:/system/sbin:/system/bin:/system/xbin
     export ANDROID_BOOTLOGO 1
     export ANDROID_ROOT /system
     export ANDROID_ASSETS /system/app
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@ on init
     export ANDROID_STORAGE /storage
     export ASEC_MOUNTPOINT /mnt/asec
     export LOOP_MOUNTPOINT /mnt/obb
+    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH /data/lxc/lxc/lib
     export BOOTCLASSPATH %BOOTCLASSPATH%
     export SYSTEMSERVERCLASSPATH %SYSTEMSERVERCLASSPATH%
     export LD_PRELOAD libsigchain.so%TARGET_LDPRELOAD%

However, LD_LIBRARY_PATH doesn't work for AOSP based android image and needs investigation. See phabricator task for more details.

Disable enforced PIE executables in bionic

Currently LXC userspace tools doesn't have executables compiled with PIE support, See github issue for more information, to workaround this, we patch bionic and disable the check which enforces only PIE executables.

diff --git a/linker/linker.cpp b/linker/linker.cpp
index 54867dc..55ca67a 100644
--- a/linker/linker.cpp
+++ b/linker/linker.cpp
@@ -2401,11 +2401,11 @@ static ElfW(Addr) __linker_init_post_relocation(KernelArgumentBlock& args, ElfW(
   si->dynamic = nullptr;
   si->ref_count = 1;
 
-  ElfW(Ehdr)* elf_hdr = reinterpret_cast<ElfW(Ehdr)*>(si->base);
-  if (elf_hdr->e_type != ET_DYN) {
-    __libc_format_fd(2, "error: only position independent executables (PIE) are supported.\n");
-    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
-  }
+  //ElfW(Ehdr)* elf_hdr = reinterpret_cast<ElfW(Ehdr)*>(si->base);
+  //if (elf_hdr->e_type != ET_DYN) {
+  //  __libc_format_fd(2, "error: only position independent executables (PIE) are supported.\n");
+  //  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+  //}
 
   // Use LD_LIBRARY_PATH and LD_PRELOAD (but only if we aren't setuid/setgid).
   parse_LD_LIBRARY_PATH(ldpath_env);

This patch needs to be dropped when LXC have proper PIE support.

Disable SELinux

SELinux and optionally audit as well needs to be disabled to run container on Android. For that edit BOARD_KERNEL_CMDLINE in the BoardConfig.mk file of device tree to pass androidboot.selinux=permissive and selinux=0.

BOARD_KERNEL_CMDLINE := console=tty0 androidboot.hardware=hammerhead user_debug=31 maxcpus=2 msm_watchdog_v2.enable=1 androidboot.bootdevice=msm_sdcc.1 androidboot.selinux=permissive

Remove the nosuid,nodev option from the data partition

Android by default mounts /data partition with nosuid,nodev options and this results in problem when using executables with suid in rootfs, given it is put inside /data partition. To fix this, we change fstab.devicename in devicetree to remoev nosuid and nodev option.

diff --git a/fstab.hammerhead b/fstab.hammerhead
index a582221..39455c1 100644
--- a/fstab.hammerhead
+++ b/fstab.hammerhead
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 # specify MF_CHECK, and must come before any filesystems that do specify MF_CHECK
 
 /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/system       /system         ext4    ro,barrier=1                                                    wait
-/dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/userdata     /data           ext4    noatime,nosuid,nodev,barrier=1,data=ordered,nomblk_io_submit,noauto_da_alloc,errors=panic wait,check,encryptable=/dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/metadata
+/dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/userdata     /data           ext4    noatime,nodev,barrier=1,data=ordered,nomblk_io_submit,noauto_da_alloc,errors=panic wait,check,encryptable=/dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/metadata
 /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/cache        /cache          ext4    noatime,nosuid,nodev,barrier=1,data=ordered,nomblk_io_submit,noauto_da_alloc,errors=panic wait,check
 /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/persist      /persist        ext4    nosuid,nodev,barrier=1,data=ordered,nodelalloc,nomblk_io_submit,errors=panic wait
 /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/modem        /firmware       vfat    ro,shortname=lower,uid=1000,gid=1000,dmask=227,fmask=337,context=u:object_r:firmware_file:s0        wait

Apply bionic patch to shift TLS slots

TLS slots used by the bionic conflicts with the libc/hybris, this results in OpenGL and/or Qt based applications crashing, to fix this Ubuntu Touch and Mer uses patch to not cause conflicts between libc and bionic. Apply this patch to bionic. If linked patch doesn't cleanly apply to your bionic checkout, required changes are simple enough to apply manually.

Fix Permission for backlight brightness file

By default brightness sysfs file permission doesn't allow other user to change brightness, this results in kwin failing to turn backlight on and off. To fix that in init.devicename.rc change the permission as shown below:

diff --git a/init.hammerhead.rc b/init.hammerhead.rc
index a08d015..e34c563 100644
--- a/init.hammerhead.rc
+++ b/init.hammerhead.rc
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ on boot
     chown system system /sys/class/leds/green/on_off_ms
     chown system system /sys/class/leds/blue/on_off_ms
     chown system system /sys/class/leds/red/rgb_start
-    chmod 664 /sys/class/leds/lcd-backlight/brightness
+    chmod 666 /sys/class/leds/lcd-backlight/brightness
 
 on post-fs-data
     write /sys/kernel/boot_adsp/boot 1

LXC container and Neon/Ubuntu rootfs

LXC userspace tools

Once minimal android system is functional (you can boot into it). Next step is to get LXC userspace tools and the rootfs for Plasma Mobile, LXC userspace tools can be downloaded from Linuxcontainers CI. Once downloaded, you need to extract it in / of the device.

adb push lxc-android.tar.gz /data/
adb shell tar xf /data/lxc-android.tar.gz

Once done, verify from adb shell that LXC userspace tools are functional by running lxc-start in adb shell and see if it prints help for it.

Container configuration

We use the following configuraiton for the Neon/Ubuntu container containing Plasma Mobile system,

lxc.rootfs = /data/lxc/containers/system/rootfs
lxc.utsname = armhf

lxc.network.type = none
lxc.mount.auto = cgroup

lxc.devttydir = lxc
lxc.pts = 1024
lxc.arch = armhf

lxc.kmsg = 0
# todo, bind only required stuff
lxc.mount.entry = /dev dev/ none bind,optional,create=dir
lxc.mount.entry = /system system/ none bind,optional,create=dir
lxc.mount.entry = /vendor vendor/ none bind,optional,create=dir

This configuration goes into /data/lxc/containers/system/config file.

Neon/Ubuntu rootfs

For reference images we use the Neon/Ubuntu based rootfs which uses the various packages rebuilt weekly. Packages are built on Mobile Neon CI and is distributed as Ubuntu package archive. This packages are then used to build the rootfs images. rootfs images are built using live-config available on github. Rootfs images are built weekly at every Thursday and if new images passes QA then is available at neon.plasma-mobile.org.

You need to download the latest rootfs from there and extract it to /data/lxc/containers/system/rootfs/

adb push plasma-rootfs.tar.gz /data/plasma-rootfs.tar.gz
adb shell mkdir -p /data/lxc/containers/system/rootfs/
adb shell tar xf /data/plasma-rootfs.tar.gz -C /data/lxc/containers/system/rootfs/
adb shell rm /data/plasma-rootfs.tar.gz

Note that initially container is not autostarted and you will need to start it manually using following command,

lxc-start -n system -F

This will give you login prompt and you can login using phablet user.

Starting Plasma Mobile

LXC container is configured to autostart forked version of sddm, which autologins into phablet user and starts KWin/Wayland which in turn starts the Plasma Mobile shell. KWin/Wayland have hwcomposer backend which uses the libhybris to initalize the OpenGL. However if for some reason KWin/Wayland can't initalize the HWcomposer it will exit. To figure out if hwcomposer is functional you can run test_hwcomposer command with EGL_PLATFORM=hwcomposer environment variable set.

$ EGL_PLATFORM=hwcomposer test_hwcomposer

If test_hwcomposer fails to run, you can run it under strace for debugging. If you need help with making it work, please contact Plasma devel mailing list with strace output.

TODO: document common problems here


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